He should give `Fidiyah` in compensation of the same.

Mu' meneen Brothers and Sisters,

As Salaam Aleikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh. (May Allah's Peace, Mercy and Blessings be upon all of you)

 

One of our brothers/sisters has asked this question:

Dear Brother,

As-Salam-o-Alikum,

 

As there is no topic by the name of `Fasting` in your index, therefore, I have selected this topic for my question.

I have read in the `Quran` written that if one has the strength to Fast and one do not `Fast` he should give `Fidiyah` in compensation of the same.

Nowhere in the `Holy Quran` have I come across that this `Aiya` is abrogated from the `Quran` neither have I come across any authentic Hadith of our Prophet Mohammed (SAW) that this `Aiya` is no more valid.

 

Can this be practiced. Would like to have your comments on it.

Best regards,

 

I. Hussain

 

(There may be some grammatical and spelling errors in the above statement. The forum does not change anything from questions, comments and statements received from our readers for circulation in confidentiality.)

 

Answer:

 

Atonement for missed fasts

In the name of Allah, We praise Him, seek His help and ask for His forgiveness. Whoever Allah guides none can misguide, and whoever He allows to fall astray, none can guide them aright. We bear witness that there is none worthy of worship but Allah Alone, and we bear witness that Muhammad (saws) is His slave-servant and the seal of His Messengers.

 

Your Question: Nowhere in the `Holy Quran` have I come across that this `Aiya` is abrogated from the `Quran` neither have I come across any authentic Hadith of our Prophet Mohammed (SAW) that this `Aiya` is no more valid.

Dear and beloved brother in Islam, it is not that whenever a newer and clearer Command of the Lord on a particular subject was Revealed, it specifically declared that the older Command was abrogated….but from the tone and the context of the Command in the Revelations, the Messenger of Allah (saws) would guide the believers to what exact extent the newer Commands superceded the previous Revelations on that particular subject.   

 

A good example is the gradual prohibition of the consumption of intoxicants….the first Revelations regarding discouraging its consumption are found in the Surah Baqarah, which was revealed in the first two years after Hijrah in Madinah….

 

Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 2 Surah Baqarah verse 219:

219    They ask thee concerning intoxicants (wine, alcohol, etc.) and gambling.  Say: "In them is great sin and some profit for men; but the sin is greater than the profit." They ask thee how much they are to spend; say: "What is beyond your needs."  Thus doth Allah make clear to you His Signs: in order that ye may consider.

 

Then in Surah Nisaa, which was Revealed four to five years after Hijrah, further clarification of the discouragement and prohibition are found…..

 

Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 4 Surah Nisaa verse 43:

43      O ye who believe! Approach not prayers with a mind befogged (in a state of intoxication) until ye can understand all that ye say….

 

And finally in Surah Maidah, which was revealed six to seven years after the Hijrah, the complete and categorical probation of the consumption of intoxicants is declared….

 

Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 5 Surah Maidah verses 90-91:

90      O ye who believe! Intoxicants, and gambling, (the dedication of) stones, and (divination by) arrows are (all) an abomination of the Shaytaan's handiwork: eschew such (abomination) that ye may prosper.

91      The Shaytaan's plan is (but) to excite enmity and hatred between you with intoxicants and gambling and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer: will ye not then abstain?

 

Upon the community of the first generation of believers, Islam proceeded step by step and in gradual formation by degrees in the imposition of most of its obligatory rites of worship; and the same was done in the case of fasts.  At first the Prophet (saws) guided the believers to observe the fasts for three days in a month, but these fasts were not obligatory.  Then in the 2nd year after Hijrah in Madinah, the Command regarding the obligatory fasts for a fixed number of days was Revealed in verses 183-184 of Surah Baqarah…

 

Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 2 Surah Baqarah verses 183-184:

183    O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you that ye may (learn) self-restraint.

184    (Fasting) for a fixed number of days; but if any of you is ill or on a journey the prescribed number (should be made up) from days later. For those who can do it (with hardship) is a ransom the feeding of one that is indigent.  But he that will give more of his own free will it is better for him and it is better for you that ye fast if ye only knew.

 

In the very beginning when the fasts were made an obligatory rite of worship, there was an option for those who could fast but did not, that they could atone for their missed fasts by feeding one who is indigent.

 

Then after some time, the final Command of the obligatory fasts of Ramadan was Revealed in verse 185 which modified the previous Commands pertaining to obligatory fasts, and the concession given to the able-bodied and healthy to leave their obligatory fasts was withdrawn; but retained only for those believers who were terminally ill and the travelers.

 

Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 2 Surah Baqarah verse 185:

185    Ramadan is the (month) in which was sent down the Qur'an as a guide to mankind also clear (Signs) for guidance and judgment (between right and wrong).  So everyone of you who is present (or witnesses) the month should spend it in fasting but if anyone is ill or on a journey the prescribed period (should be made up) by days later.  Allah intends every facility for you He does not want to put you to difficulties.  (He wants you) to complete the prescribed period and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and perchance ye shall be grateful.

 

There are several authentic narrations to that effect found in the authentic Sunnah:

 

Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith 6.34 Narrated by Salama

When the Divine Revelation: "….for those who can fast, they had a choice either fast, or feed a poor for every day," (2.184) was revealed, it was permissible for one to give a ransom and give up fasting, till the Verse 185 succeeding it was revealed and (partially) abrogated it.

 

Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith 6.33 Narrated by Nafi

Ibn 'Umar recited:"….they had a choice, either fast or feed a poor for every day..." (2:184), and added, "This Verse is (partially) abrogated (by the Revelation of Verse 185)."

 

Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith 6.32 Narrated by Ata

That he heard Ibn 'Abbas reciting the Divine Verse:  "….for those who can fast they had a choice either fast, or feed a poor for every day..."  (2.184)  Ibn 'Abbas said, "This Verse is not (completely) abrogated, but it is meant for old men and old women who (are terminally ill and) have no strength to fast, so they should feed one poor person for each day of missed fasts."

 

Your Question: Can this be practiced. Would like to have your comments on it.

Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 2 Surah Baqarah verse 184:

184    (Fasting) for a fixed number of days; but if any of you is ill or on a journey the prescribed number (should be made up) from days later. For those who can do it (with hardship) is a ransom the feeding of one that is indigent.  But he that will give more of his own free will it is better for him and it is better for you that ye fast if ye only knew.

 

If one is indulged in a permanent or terminal form of illness and has absolutely no hope of recovering from that illness whereby one is unable to even make up the missed fasts at a later date….then the atonement for such terminally ill believers is the feeding of (at least) one poor indigent person for each fast missed.  This form of atonement of feeding (at least) one poor person for each fast missed is only for those who are terminally ill and have no hope of recovery, and not for the temporarily ill….for the temporarily ill (pregnant woman, etc.), they are not eligible to atone their missed fasts by feeding the poor, but they have to make up their missed fasts by fasting on other days of their convenience.

 

Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 2 Surah Baqarah verse 185:

185    Ramadan is the (month) in which was sent down the Qur'an as a guide to mankind also clear (Signs) for guidance and judgment (between right and wrong).  So everyone of you who is present (or witnesses) the month should spend it in fasting but if anyone is ill or on a journey the prescribed period (should be made up) by days later.  Allah intends every facility for you He does not want to put you to difficulties.  (He wants you) to complete the prescribed period and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and perchance ye shall be grateful.

 

Whatever written of Truth and benefit is only due to Allah’s Assistance and Guidance, and whatever of error is of me alone.  Allah Alone Knows Best and He is the Only Source of Strength.

 

Your brother and well wisher in Islam,

 

 

Burhan

 

 

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